Life Chronology of Our Prophet (PBUH)
Before going into the life experiences of our Prophet, we have chronologically listed important dates throughout the Prophet’s life. We hope that this list will help enliven the Prophet’s life in your eyes.
571 – On the 12th night of the month of Rabi al-Awwal (April, 20), Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, honored this world with his birth.
575 – The foster mother of the Messenger of Allah, Halima, handed him to his mother, Amina bint Wahb.
577 – Our Prophet lost his mother in the village of Abwa, situated in between Mecca and Medina. His grandfather, Abdul Muttalib, adopted him into his family.
579 – Abdul Muttalib left this world to the Hereafter. Our Prophet started to share a home with his uncle Abu Talib ibn Abdul Muttalib.
583 – With his uncle, Abu Talib, he went to Damascus (territories of contemporary Syria and Lebanon) for trading purposes. Here, Priest Bahira discovered that the Messenger of Allah was the last expected Prophet.
590 – He joined the Alliance of the Virtuous.
591 – Started his trading business.
596 – He went to Sham again for trading purposes. Three months later he married Khadija bint Khuwaylid. In their wedlock, they had six children, two boys and four girls. Their names were Qasim, Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, Fatima, and Abdullah.
605 – He hammered out a conflict that happened between tribes during the reconstruction of the Ka’ba.
610 – In the Cave of Hira on the Mountain of Light, he communicated his first revelation and had attained the duty of Prophethood.
613 – At Safa, he had openly communicated the message for the first time. He had arranged dining tables for his close relatives during the conveying of his message. Disbelievers started to torture Muslims.
615 – The first migration to Abyssinia, the territory of contemporary Ethiopia, took place. A group of fifteen people, four of which were women, set off to Abyssinia to protect themselves from violence and practice their religion in a much better way. The son in law of our Prophet, Uthman ibn Affan, led them. In the same year, Hamza ibn Abdul Muttalib and Umar ibn al-Khattab converted to Islam.
616 – The second migration to Abyssinia took place. This time, a group of 101 people, eighteen of which were women, moved to Abyssinia under the leadership of Jafar ibn Abu Talib. During that period, attempts of a non-believer, Amr ibn As (who converted to Islam later) to convince the Negus in the matter of not protecting Muslims ended in vain. The Negus allowed Muslim migrants to stay in his country.
617 – A group of prominent people of Quraysh, consisting of 40 people, gathered at the chieftaincy of Abu Jahl, where they decided not to have any kind of business with Muslims, not to allow their children to marry Muslims, not to have meetings with them, and to cease all economic and social relations with them. They wrote it down in the form of a treaty and stamped it, after which appealed it on a single piece of cloth and hung it inside the Ka’ba. In doing so, they hoped that by harassing Muslims, they would make them surrender the Prophet. By taking the pledge of not doing anything against this decision, they started intolerantly applying these laws. In this manner, a social and economic boycott against Muslims took place that lasted for three long years.
619 – The Boycott ended. The son of the Prophet, Qasim, and then his other son, Abdullah, passed away. After a while, his uncle Abu Talib and Khadija died in the same year as well.
620 – The Messenger of Allah went to Taif, where he was treated terribly.
621 – The Night journey and Ascension took place this year. In the same year realization of Aqaba Pledge took place, where twelve Medinans Pledged to the Messenger of Allah. Six people conferred in the Hill of Aqaba with the Messenger of Allah and then converted to Islam. After the Hajj Season, they returned to Medina. By explaining everything experienced to their kith and kin, they started to spread Islam all over Medina. A year later, in the Season of Hajj, there came twelve people, ten of whom were from the tribe of Khazraj and two more—from Aws, who had already become Muslims, to confer with the noble Prophet. The Messenger of Allah appointed Mus’ab ibn Umayr to preach Islam in Medina.
622 – The Second Aqaba Pledge was committed. Muslims of Mecca and then our Prophet emigrated from Mecca to Medina. The Prophet’s Mosque was constructed. The first adhan was recited.
623 – The Direction of the qibla was changed from Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem to the Ka’ba by the command of Allah the Almighty.
624 – The Battle of Badr took place with the hypocrites of Mecca. In the same year, Muslims confronted Jews of the tribe of Banu Qaynuqa and sent them away from Medina. Fasting in the month of Ramadan was ordained. The first religious festive day prayer was performed. Paying purifying alms was ordained, too. The daughter of the Messenger of Allah, Ruqayyah, passed away. Ali ibn Abu Talib married Fatima. The first prayer of the Eid of Sacrifice was performed.
625 – Battle of Uhud took place.
627 – Battle of the Trench took place. According to the covenant, Jews of the tribe of Banu Qurayza were to protect Medina together with Muslims during the Battle of the Trench. However, they did not fulfill their duty. Moreover, they disregarded all clauses within the Aqaba Pledge, and in a very critical part of the battle, they joined hypocrites. After the battle, the Messenger of Allah drew his army towards Banu Qurayza and eliminated them, too.
628 – The Messenger of Allah and his Companions set forth to Mecca for minor pilgrimage. Uthman ibn Affan was sent there as an emissary. As soon as news of Uthman’s martyrdom reached our beloved Prophet, he took pledge from Companions to fight against them. This pledge was called the Pledge of Ridwan. When that information reached hypocrites, they set Uthman ibn Affan free. The hypocrites were very resolute in not letting Muslims visit the Ka’ba. Therefore they sent an envoy to the Messenger of Allah to negotiate a treaty. The Messenger of Allah accepted all the clauses of the treaty, which primarily seemed to not be in the Muslims favor; however, later on they turned to be in favors of Muslims. In this way, a Hudaybiya Reconciliation with the Meccan hypocrites was signed.
629 – Letters of calling into Islam were sent to rulers of that age. The Messenger of Allah sent Dihya ibn Khalifa al-Kalbi to the Byzantine emperor, Heraclius; Amr ibn Umayya ad-Damri to the Abyssinian king (the Negus) Ashama ibn al-Abjar; Abdullah ibn Hudhafah as-Sahmi to the Persian (Sassanian) king (Khosrau II) Khusraw Parviz; Hatib ibn Abu Balta’ah to Egyptian vicegerent (the Muqawqis) Juraij ibn Matta; Sulayt ibn Amr al-Amiri to the chief of Yamama, Hawdha ibn Ali; Shuja ibn Wahb to the king of Damascus, Harith ibn Abi Shamir al-Ghassan, with the purpose of inviting them to Islam. In the same year, the Battle of Khaybar took place. Victory, gained at Khaybar almost made all the Jews of Arabia surrender to Islamic government. Furthermore, Battles of Byzantine and Muta took place in the same year.
630 – Mecca was conquered. The Holy Ka’ba was purified and cleared from all idols. During the Battle of Hunayn (against tribes of Saqif and Hawazin), Muslims prevailed and won. The Expedition to Tabuk was accomplished. The Byzantine army did not dare confront the Muslim army because of their poor military preparations. Therefore, a battle did not take place.
632 – Our beloved Prophet performed the Farewell Pilgrimage. He later fell ill and passed away.